Wednesday, June 21, 2023

Exploring the Restoration and Improvement of Autoimmune Diseases

 Exploring the Restoration and Improvement of the Immune System and Autoimmune Diseases  

     The human immune system is a remarkable defense mechanism designed to protect the body from harmful invaders. However, in some individuals, this intricate system turns against itself, leading to a range of disorders known as autoimmune diseases. The autoimmune spectrum encompasses a vast array of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, celiac disease, and thyroid disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanisms behind autoimmune disorders is crucial in order to develop effective strategies for managing and potentially reversing these conditions. In this blog post, we will explore the autoimmune spectrum, its causes, and symptoms, and delve into various approaches for restoring balance to the immune system. 


     The autoimmune spectrum refers to a continuum of disorders characterized by an overactive immune response, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy tissues and organs. While specific autoimmune diseases may have distinct symptoms and target different parts of the body, they all share a common thread: an immune system gone awry.  Autoimmune diseases are believed to arise from a complex interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and immune system dysfunction.Genetic factors play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility to autoimmune disorders, but environmental factors such as infections, toxins, stress, and dietary factors can also contribute to disease development. The process may occur over several years and initially, there may be no symptoms. As we continue to consume foods that we are sensitive to or consume inflammatory foods like gluten, sugar, processed foods, and dairy, we develop more symptoms and then disease. 


     The symptoms differ depending on the affected organs or systems. However, some common symptoms include chronic fatigue, joint pain, muscle weakness, rashes, hair loss, gastrointestinal disturbances (gas, bloating, and abdominal pain) as well as a recurring fever. It is important to note that symptoms may fluctuate over time, making diagnosis challenging.

Strategies for Autoimmune Recovery 

  1. Diet and Nutrition:
    • Elimination and Anti-Inflammatory Diets: Identifying and removing potential food triggers, such as gluten, dairy, sugar, and processed foods, can alleviate symptoms and reduce inflammation. This may take time but some improvement may be seen in as little as 3 weeks. An elimination diet of 6 weeks of dairy, sugar, and gluten is important to start the process. After this, the person can slowly re-introduce foods one at a time to see if there is any reaction!
    • Nutrient-rich, Anti-Inflammatory Foods: Emphasizing a whole foods-based diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats can support immune system modulation and overall health.
  2. Stress Management:
    • Mind-Body Techniques: Engaging in practices like meditation, deep breathing exercises, and yoga can help reduce stress levels and promote immune system balance.
    • Adequate Rest and Sleep: Prioritizing quality sleep and allowing ample time for rest and rejuvenation are essential for immune system recovery.
  3. Gut Health Optimization:
    • Probiotics and Fermented Foods: Consuming probiotic-rich foods or supplements and incorporating fermented foods into the diet can promote a healthy gut microbiome, which plays a vital role in immune function.
    • Healing the Gut Lining: Addressing intestinal permeability ("leaky gut") through dietary modifications and targeted supplementation may help reduce immune system dysregulation. Supplementation may be considered after a 3-week elimination diet of sugar, gluten, and dairy.
  4. Environmental Factors:
    • Toxin Avoidance: Minimizing exposure to environmental toxins, such as chemicals in household products, pesticides, and heavy metals, can lessen the burden on the immune system.
    • Lifestyle Modifications: Incorporating regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can support immune system resilience.
  5. Functional Medicine and Integrative Approaches:
    • Seeking guidance from a qualified functional medicine coach and practitioner can provide personalized treatment plans tailored to address the root causes of autoimmune disorders.

     The autoimmune spectrum encompasses a wide range of diseases that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. However, with a comprehensive approach focusing on diet and nutrition, stress management, optimization of gut health, environmental factors, and utilizing functional medicine principles, there is hope for restoring immune system balance and alleviating symptoms. Remember, every individual is unique, so working with a functional medicine health coach and practitioner to develop a personalized plan that addresses your specific needs is essential. By understanding the autoimmune spectrum and implementing targeted strategies, a path toward improved well-being and potentially even remission is within reach.

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Sunday, June 4, 2023

The Effects of Gluten, Dairy and Sugar on Inflammation and Inflammaging

Unraveling the effects of Gluten, Dairy and Sugar on Inflammation and Inflammaging

     As we age, our bodies undergo various changes, and one phenomenon that has gained significant attention in recent years is inflammaging. Inflammaging refers to chronic, low-grade inflammation that occurs as a result of aging. While the aging process itself contributes to this inflammation, certain dietary factors, such as gluten, dairy, and sugar, have also been implicated in exacerbating inflammation and aging.  In this blog post, I will explore the effects of these common dietary components and their potential impact on aging and chronic disease. 

     Inflammaging is a complex process influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. It is characterized by persistent inflammation in various tissues and organs throughout the body. While inflammation is a natural defense mechanism to protect against pathogens and injuries, chronic inflammation can have detrimental effects on our health, accelerating the aging process and contributing to the development of a variety of chronic diseases. The factors of genetics, environment, and lifestyle as well as intestinal permeability lead to illness on the autoimmune spectrum( this means that the body starts to attack itself).  This starts with inflammation and leads to the production of antibodies which progresses to tissue destruction, organ damage, and manifestation of chronic diseases such as Inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, and Alzheimer’s Dementia.

     Gluten and Inflammaging 

     Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, and it is commonly consumed in the form of bread, pasta, and other wheat-based products. The gluten in wheat products today is not the same as it was 40 years ago. Most humans cannot digest the proteins in gluten.  For individuals with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten, the immune system responds abnormally to the protein, leading to chronic inflammation in the gut. However, even in individuals without celiac disease, gluten may contribute to low-grade inflammation, this is called non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  Gluten can increase intestinal permeability, a leaky gut, characterized by the creation of holes in the intestinal lining; this allows harmful substances to enter the bloodstream and trigger an immune response. This chronic immune activation can promote inflammaging and increase aging and chronic diseases such as Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease. 

Dairy and Inflammaging 

     Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt, are commonly consumed and provide essential nutrients. However, dairy contains proteins like casein and lactalbumin, which can elicit inflammatory responses in certain individuals. Additionally, dairy products often contain high levels of saturated fats associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. In order to counteract this oxidative stress, we need to consume massive amounts of antioxidants, vitamins, and nutrients.  However, it is important to note that the relationship between dairy consumption and inflammation in an individual may vary. There are times when we may need to eliminate dairy from the diet to see if there are food sensitivities or allergies. 

Sugar and Inflammaging 

    Excessive sugar consumption has been linked to a wide range of health issues, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It is also thought to play a significant role in the aging process.  Sugar triggers a cascade of events in the body, leading to increased production of pro-inflammatory molecules and oxidative stress. Additionally, sugar-rich diets can contribute to insulin resistance, further promoting inflammation.  Insulin resistance means that there is plenty of Insulin, but it is difficult for the cells of the body to utilize. Chronic inflammation resulting from sugar consumption can accelerate aging, impair cellular function, and increase the propensity to develop chronic disease. In addition, it can destroy the ability of the body to get rid of toxins and creates a deficiency of key minerals like magnesium. 

Adopting an Anti-Inflammatory Diet 

     Adopting an anti-inflammatory diet can be beneficial for overall health. An anti-inflammatory diet typically includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. These foods provide essential nutrients, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory compounds that help reduce chronic inflammation. Additionally, it is essential to listen to your body and identify any specific dietary triggers that may contribute to inflammation.

    Inflammaging is a multifaceted process influenced by various factors, including diet. While the effects of gluten, dairy, and sugar vary with the individual,  it is important to be mindful of their potential impact on chronic inflammation. Opting for an anti-inflammatory diet and lifestyle focusing on nutrient-dense foods can help support overall health and potentially mitigate the effects of inflammaging. Remember, small dietary changes can significantly promote healthy aging and reduce the risk of age-related diseases.

Friday, May 19, 2023

Blood sugar management for Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

     Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of health conditions, including obesity, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, and abnormal blood sugar levels. It poses a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  One of the key factors in managing Metabolic syndrome and Diabetes is maintaining optimal blood sugar control while they are on medications like insulin or oral hypoglycemic meds.  In recent years, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has emerged as a revolutionary technology to monitor blood sugar levels more effectively. In this blog post, we will explore the latest research on blood sugar control and CGM, focusing on its potential benefits for individuals with Metabolic syndrome and Diabetes.  Some individuals are not diagnosed with Diabetes or Metabolic Syndrome but are curious about the effects of different foods, stress, and exercise on their blood sugar levels. This may be an athlete or a parent that wishes to be more aware of their health. It is now possible for the public to obtain a CGM device without a Diagnosis of Diabetes.

Understanding Metabolic Syndrome:

      Metabolic syndrome is a complex condition characterized by several interrelated factors, often resulting from an unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet, sedentary habits, and excess body weight. Individuals with metabolic syndrome typically have higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, and increased abdominal fat. People with Diabetes also may have insulin resistance and struggle with maintaining a stable blood sugar level. 

The Role of Blood Sugar Control:

     Maintaining stable blood sugar levels is vital for overall health and preventing the progression of disease.  Elevated blood sugar levels can lead to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and damage to blood vessels, which are significant contributors to cardiovascular disease and other complications. Individuals with Diabetes need to control their blood sugar with diet and exercise. 

Traditional Approaches to Blood Sugar Control:

     Traditionally, blood sugar control has relied on periodic fingerstick measurements using a glucose meter: fasting, before meals, and at bedtime. However, this method only provides a snapshot of blood sugar levels at a specific moment and fails to capture the fluctuations that occur throughout the day. Consequently, individuals with metabolic syndrome and Diabetes may find it challenging to identify patterns, and trigger factors, to make informed decisions about their diet and lifestyle.

Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM):

     CGM is a cutting-edge technology that enables individuals to monitor their blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night. A CGM system consists of a small glucose sensor inserted under the skin, which measures blood sugar levels in the interstitial fluid. The sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data to a receiver or smartphone app, allowing users to track their blood sugar trends, detect patterns, and make data-driven decisions.

Benefits of CGM for Metabolic Syndrome Management:

  1. Enhanced Awareness: CGM provides individuals with metabolic syndrome and Diabetes a comprehensive view of their blood sugar levels, helping them better understand how their diet, physical activity, and stress levels affect their glucose control. This awareness can empower them to make informed choices about their lifestyle habits.
  2. Real-time Feedback: CGM devices offer real-time data and alerts, notifying users when their blood sugar levels rise or fall beyond their desired range. This instant feedback enables prompt action, such as adjusting insulin dosages, modifying meals, or engaging in physical activity to stabilize blood sugar levels.
  3. Pattern Recognition: CGM systems allow users to identify trends and patterns in their blood sugar levels over time. By analyzing this data, individuals can identify triggers for blood sugar spikes or drops, aiding in making appropriate dietary and lifestyle modifications.
  4. Reduced Hypoglycemic Episodes: Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, can be a significant concern for people with metabolic syndrome and Diabetes. CGM devices provide early warnings of impending hypoglycemic events, enabling individuals to take preventive measures, such as consuming a snack or adjusting insulin dosages, to avoid dangerous blood sugar dips.
  5. Better Treatment Adjustments: The continuous data provided by CGM allows healthcare providers to gain insights into an individual's blood sugar patterns, facilitating more informed adjustments to medication, diet, and exercise plans. This personalized approach can lead to more effective and targeted treatments.


     Continuous glucose monitoring represents a significant advancement in blood sugar control for individuals with Metabolic syndrome and Diabetes. By providing real-time data, pattern recognition, and personalized insights, CGM empowers individuals to make informed decisions about their diet, and physical activity and make adjustments to improve blood sugar balance.

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Wednesday, May 10, 2023

How to Choose a Healthy Snack and Other Ideas to Munch On : Food for Thought

 In today's fast-paced lifestyle, it is easy to grab a bag of chips or a candy bar when you are feeling peckish. However, consuming too much sugar and processed foods can lead to weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and other health problems. That's why it is essential to find healthy snacks that are low in sugar and processed sugars, organic, with minimum preservatives and artificial colors and flavors, and have proper amounts of protein, fiber, and good fats.

Here are some delicious and nutritious snack ideas that meet these criteria:

  1. Hummus and veggies: Hummus is made from chickpeas, which are an excellent source of protein and fiber. Pair it with carrot sticks, cucumber slices, or cherry tomatoes for a tasty and filling snack. TRy to gert organic or make your own. Try to find it without canola oil or other processed oils

   2.Greek yogurt with berries: Greek yogurt is high in protein and low in sugar. Add a handful of fresh  blueberries or raspberries  for extra fiber and vitamins. Look for unsweetened or plain varieties. Also look at coconut yogurt , but watch out for sugar content . You can make your own coconut yogurt with coconut milk  and probiotics .

3 Nuts and seeds: Almonds, walnuts, and pumpkin seeds are all great sources of protein, fiber, and healthy fats. Just be sure to choose unsalted and unsweetened varieties to avoid excess sodium and sugar. In addition, watch out for roasted nuts with processed oils like canola oil.

Nuts can be heathy but you need to watch portion sizes and also try to eat those with a higher omega 3 content vs omega 6. The highest source of omega 3 nuts are macadamia nuts and brazil nuts . Also , consider soaking nuts because of the content of phytates which may help with digestion .

4.Roasted chickpeas: Chickpeas are a versatile legume that can be roasted with different spices to create a crunchy and satisfying snack. Try them with cumin and paprika or garlic and rosemary for a flavor boost.

5.Hard-boiled eggs: Eggs are one of the best sources of protein and healthy fats. Hard-boiled eggs are a convenient and portable snack that can keep you feeling full for hours.

6.Apple slices with almond butter: Apples are high in fiber and antioxidants, while almond butter provides protein and healthy fats. This combination makes for a sweet and satisfying snack that will keep you fueled throughout the day. It is important to choose organic apples . They are on the list of the EWG (environmetal work group )dirty dozen. Almond butter is also better if you can find organic since some almonds may have more  toxins and contribute to brain fog.

7.Homemade granola bars: Many store-bought granola bars are loaded with sugar and preservatives. Making your own at home allows you to control the ingredients and create a healthier version. Try using oats, nuts, seeds, and dried fruit to create a nutritious and delicious snack. Caution here. Use gluten free oats and minimize the dried fruits (cranberries , dates ,figs ,and raisins )because they are high on the glycemic indes and raise insulin levels . Dates and figs do have higher fiber content and are digested more slowly then raisins and cranberries .

8Avocado toast: Avocado is a good source of healthy fats and fiber. Spread mashed avocado on gluten free or sprouted grain breads  for a filling and satisfying snack that will keep you energized.

9.Roasted edamame: Edamame is a type of soybean that is high in protein and fiber. Roast them in the oven with a little bit of salt and chili flakes for a crunchy and satisfying snack.

10.Sliced bell peppers with hummus or guacamole: Bell peppers are low in calories and high in vitamin C. Pair them with hummus or guacamole for a filling and nutritious snack. if you can find organic peppers or get them locally from a farmers market , that’s a bonus.

11.Rice Cakes with Avocado

Rice cakes are a low-calorie snack that can be topped with a variety of toppings. Avocado is a great option, as it is high in healthy fats and fiber. You can also add some sliced tomato and a sprinkle of sea salt for extra flavor. opt in for rice cakes that are organic, brown or wild rice vs white rice .

12.Trail Mix

Trail mix can be a healthy snack if you choose the right ingredients. Look for options that are low in sugar and have a variety of nuts, seeds, with minimal  dried fruit. You can also add some dark chocolate chips for a sweet treat.

If you are in the store and wish to purchase commercial snacks .. look for the following:

1. Look for 5 ingredients or less

2 .Avoid snacks with sucralose and splenda .. opt in for stevia and monk fruit 

3.Watch out for sugar alcohols because they produce gas and diarrhea 

4.Dont buy anything with ingredients that you cant pronounce

5.Avoid enriched wheat flour ( this means that wheat has been stripped out and processed grains are put back in that are processed) even if these include various vitamins .

6.Be cautious of health claims on the label ..companies try to trick you 

7.Avoid hydrogentated or partially hydrogenated fats or oils as well as canola or vegetable oils 

8.Look for good amounts of fiber and low sugar ( less then 5 to 7 grams per serving)

9.If it has the organic seal, then at least 90 percent of the ingredients are organic vs just saying that it is organic ( means that at least one ingredient is organic .

10.Avoid HFCS because it has been processed, causes inflammation and has mercury Avoid hidden sugars . cassava sugar, maple syrup, brown rice sugar , white flour and white rice as well as agave are all sugar . See how many you can find on your label. If you see more then 2 or 3 then you know it is loaded with sugars .

11.Last, if you see that the label has a whole list of ingredients , put it back because it is highly 

processed and has many things you can't pronounce as well as artificial ingredients 

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Sunday, April 30, 2023

Beyond ZZZ's: Unleashing. the power of Sleep to Heal the Body

      As humans, we spend approximately one-third of our lives sleeping. However, have you ever considered the importance of sleep beyond just preventing fatigue? In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the role of sleep in healing the body. Researchers have discovered that sleep plays a pivotal role in repairing and revitalizing

our bodies. In this blog post, we will explore the importance of sleep in helping to heal the body.

     Sleep offers an ideal environment for cellular repair and regeneration. When we sleep, our bodies undergo extensive repair work, restoring any damages that might have been inflicted during the day. According to a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), sleep helps to restore damaged muscles and tissues by increasing the release of growth hormones in the body.

This happens at the level of the cells , the mitochondria and in the brain .

     Additionally, sleep plays a crucial role in the immune system's functioning. The immune system plays a crucial role in defending the body against infections and diseases. It works by detecting and destroying harmful pathogens, including foreign substances and cancerous cells. However, the immune system is highly complex and interconnected with other physiological systems, including the nervous system, endocrine system, and circadian rhythm. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between immune function and sleep. This paper aims to explore the current scientific knowledge on this topic, including the effects of sleep on immune function, the mechanism underlying this relationship, and the implications for health and disease.

Effects of Sleep on Immune Function

     Sleep is known to have a significant influence on the immune system. Studies have shown that sleep deprivation can lead to a decrease in immune function, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. For example, individuals who sleep less than 7 hours per night have been found to be three times more likely to develop a cold than those who sleep 8 hours or more (Cohen et al., 2009). Similarly, sleep deprivation has been shown to suppress the immune system's ability to produce antibodies in response to vaccinations, making the vaccines less effective (Prather et al., 2017).

     On the other hand, getting enough sleep can boost immune function and improve the body's ability to fight infections. For example, a study conducted on healthy adults found that those who slept for 8 hours per night had higher levels of natural killer (NK) cell activity than those who slept for 5 hours or less (Savard et al., 1997). NK cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in detecting and destroying cancerous cells and virally infected cells. Other studies have found that adequate sleep is associated with higher levels of cytokines, which are molecules that play a vital role in the immune response (Opp, 2005).

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Mechanisms Underlying the Relationship Between Immune Function and Sleep

     The mechanisms underlying the relationship between immune function and sleep are complex and not yet fully understood. However, several hypotheses have been proposed based on the existing scientific literature. One such hypothesis is that sleep helps to promote the proliferation of immune cells, including T cells and NK cells, by facilitating the production of cytokines (Imeri & Opp, 2009). Another hypothesis is that sleep plays a role in regulating the circadian rhythm, which in turn affects immune function. The circadian rhythm is an internal clock that regulates various physiological processes, including sleep and wakefulness, and is tightly connected with the immune system (Lange et al., 2010). Additionally, sleep has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a critical component of the stress response (Imeri & Opp, 2009). The HPA axis is known to interact with the immune system, and disruptions to this axis have been associated with immune dysfunction (Dhabhar, 2008).

Implications for Health and Disease

     The relationship between immune function and sleep has significant implications for health and disease. Sleep disturbances and deficiencies have been linked to a range of diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer (Irwin & Opp, 2017). Additionally, sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been shown to be associated with immune dysfunction (Sharma & Rizzi, 2020). Improving sleep quality and quantity may, therefore, be a promising approach to improve immune function and prevent a range of diseases.

     Sleep also influences the body's ability to regulate inflammation. Inflammation is our body's response to injury, infections, or foreign substances. Adequate sleep helps prevent systemic inflammation, which can cause long-term damage to various body systems. Inflammation is a protective response triggered by the immune system to remove harmful stimuli and promote healing processes. Although beneficial in the short term, prolonged or chronic inflammation can lead to a host of disorders, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. 

 The exact mechanisms through which sleep regulates inflammation remain poorly understood. Several recent studies shed light on the complex interplay between sleep and inflammation and suggest that sleep deprivation may contribute to chronic inflammation in the body.

One study conducted by the University of California, San Francisco, found that sleep deprivation can cause a significant increase in inflammatory markers. Participants who slept less than six hours per night had higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker that indicates inflammation in the body. The study concluded that sleep disruption may trigger the immune system to produce pro-inflammatory substances, leading to chronic inflammation.

Another study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association found that sleep disturbance in patients with heart failure can exacerbate inflammation, leading to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The study concluded that improving sleep quality in these patients could lead to a reduction in inflammation and improved cardiovascular health.

The connection between sleep and inflammation may be due to the role of sleep in regulating the body's circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm regulates various physiological processes, including the immune response. Research has shown that sleep disturbances can disrupt the circadian rhythm, leading to dysregulation of the immune system and increased inflammation.

     The brain also benefits greatly from sleep, and good sleep has been associated with improved cognitive function, including memory consolidation and learning. During sleep, the brain processes the information we gathered during the day; therefore, good sleep allows us to retain and recall important information more easily.

When we get a good nights sleep the prefrontal cortex , the thinking and reasoning part of the brain is able to exert control over the primitive brain or amygdala . When we don’t sleep , the primitive brain takes over our decision making and allows us to make more impulsive decisions that affect our food and exercise choices . 

In conclusion, this blog post has highlighted the importance of adequate sleep in helping to heal the body. Boosting the immune system, facilitating tissue repair and regeneration, and controlling inflammation are all important factors; making sure that we get quality sleep should be an integral part of our health routine. Fortunately, adopting healthy sleep habits, such as developing a regular sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and avoiding stimulants before bedtime significantly improve the quality of our sleep and enhance our overall well-being.

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Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Alper, C. M., Janicki-Deverts, D., & Turner, R. B. (2009). Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Archives of internal medicine, 169(1), 62–67.

Dhabhar, F. S. (2008). Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress on immune function: implications for immunoprotection and immunopathology. Neuroimmunomodulation, 15(2), 80–87.

Imeri, L., & Opp, M. R. (2009). How (and why) the immune system makes us sleep. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(3), 199–210.

Irwin, M. R., & Opp, M. R. (2017). Sleep health: reciprocal regulation of sleep and innate immunity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(1), 129–155.

Lange, T., Dimitrov, S., & Born, J. (2010). Effects of sleep and circadian rhythm on the human immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1193(1), 48–59.

Opp, M. R. (2005). Sleep and psychoneuroimmunology. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(S1), S67–S76.

Prather, A. A., Janicki-Deverts, D., Hall, M. H., & Cohen, S. (2017). Behaviorally assessed sleep and susceptibility to the common cold. Sleep, 40(5), zsx017.

Savard, J., Laroche, L., Simard, S., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (1997). Chronic insomnia and immune functioning. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(4), 419–426.

Sharma, A., & Rizzi, D. (2020). Sleep disordered breathing and immunology: An overview. Respiratory Medicine: X, 2, 100029.